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The physical morphology of shallots can be divided into parts, namely roots, stalks, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Shallots have root fibers with a shallow root mechanism and scattered branching, at a depth of between 15-20 cm in a soil with a root diameter of 2-5 mm (AAK, 2004). Onion plants (Allium Ceppa L.) are counted as one-season plants ( annual), lined, rooted fibers, cylindrical leafy like pipes, have a true stalk (discus) in the form of a disc, thin and short as a place for sticking root and budding (growth point).

Read more: 11 Benefits of Shallots: Strengthen Immunity to Healthy Heart


The roots of the onion plant consist of the primary root which acts as a place for adventitious roots to grow and root feathers that play a role in supporting the establishment of plants and absorbing water and nutrients from the soil. The roots can grow to a depth of 30 cm, white color, when kneaded a piercing smell like the smell of shallots (Pitojo, 2003).

Saplings and Bulbs

In the development of the plant grow buds or saplings, then several tubers are created that are densely packed which are known as cloves. The development of cloves generally occurs in the multiplication of onions from bulb seeds and is less common in the multiplication of onions and seeds. The color of the skin of tubers is various, some are pink, crimson, or yellowish, depending on the species. Onion bulbs emit a piercing smell.


Shallots have true stalks or are mentioned with discus that are discus that are discus-like, thin, and short as the attachment of the roots and buds, above the discus there is a pseudo-stalk composed of leaf midribs and stalks all of which are different in the soil different forms and roles as lapis bulbs (Sudirja, 2007).

Read more: How to Plant Onions along with pictures


The leaves are relatively soft, when kneaded, they will smell detailed like the smell of shallots. After drying in the sun, the leaves of the onion plant stick relatively firmly with the bulbs, making it easier to ship and store (Sunarjono, 2003). According to Sudirja (2007), the leek is in the form of a small cylindrical elongated between 50-70 cm, perforated and the tip side is pointed in light green to dark green color, and the location of the leaves is attached to a stem that is relatively short in size, and the onion flowers come out the ends of the plants (growing points) whose length is between 30-90 cm.


Onion flowers as prime flowers, have yarns and pistils. Each flower floret consists of six leaves of a white flower, six stamens of a yellowish-green color, and a pistil, sometimes between the florets of onion flowers are found flowers that have really small and short pistils or rudimentary, which are taken into account as sterile flowers. Although the number of flower florets is large, the flowers that have successfully carried out the persarian are relatively small (Wibowo, 2005). At the end of the leaves there are 50-200 flower florets arranged in a circle as if in the form of an umbrella. Each flower floret consists of 5-6 leaves of white flowers, 6 stamens of green or yellowish color, 1 pistil and will be almost a fruit in the form of almost a pentath (Sudirja, 2007). After the leaf is opened, gradually the bunches will be visible and there are flower buds equal to the size of the stem less than 2 cm (Sumadi, 2003).


Onion seeds are round in shape, inside of which there are seeds that are quite flat and have a small size. When it is still fairly young, the seeds are clear white and after old the color is black (Pitojo, 2003). Onion seeds are round in shape with the tip pedestaled with seeds in the amount of 2-3 grains.

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AAK, 2004. Onion Farming Guidelines, Kanisius, Yogyakarta

Pitojo, S. 2003. Shallot Seeds. Kansius. Yogyakarta

Sudirja, 2007. Shallot. http// Alternaria partrait.html.

Sumadi. 2003. Intensification of Shallot Cultivation. Kanisius. Yogyakarta.

Sunarjono, A. 2003. Onion Cultivation. New ray, Bandung



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